1.1.1 The CMAS has developed a CMAS International Diver Training Certification System that consists of Diver, Speciality Diver, Technical Diver and Leadership Diver Training Standards and which allows divers,that have been trained in accordance with the prescribed CMAS International Diver Training Standards, to have their certifications recognised throughout the world in countries that are members of the CMAS family of divers.
1.1.2 A diver can obtain a CMAS International Diver Training Certificate by means of either of the following:
188.8.131.52 By attending a CMAS Diver Training Programme of a CMAS Federation, that is presented by a CMAS Instructor that is duly authorised to present the training programme on behalf of the specific CMAS Federation, provided that the CMAS Federation is a member in good standing with the CMAS International Technical Committee and provided that such training programme has been recognised by CMAS International as equivalent to the CMAS International Diver Training Standard for that specific training programme.
184.108.40.206 By attending a CMAS Diver Training Programme of a CDC, that is presented by a CMAS Instructor that is duly authorised to present the training programme on behalf of the specific
CDC, provided that the CDC is a member in good standing with the CMAS International
Technical Committee and provided that such training programme has been recognised by CMAS International as equivalent to the CMAS International Diver Training Standard for that specific training programme.
1.2 Aim of the CMAS International Diver Training Certification System
1.2.1 The CMAS International Diver Training Certification System aims at providing international recognition for all CMAS Diver Training Certifications by clearly stating, in the prescribed CMAS Diver Training Standards, the level of competence and experience required from a diver before a specific level of CMAS certification will be issued to him by CMAS International. This means that the system is intended to provide international recognition of an individual diver’s level of competence and experience, irrespective of where he was trained in the world, allowing him to dive all over the world with his CMAS International C-card.
1.2.2 All CMAS Federations or CDC’s are compelled to recognise a diver’s CMAS International Certification allowing the diver to dive within the parameters of his CMAS International Certification and allowing him to gain access to more advanced CMAS Diver Training Programmes based on his CMAS International Certification.
1.3 Format used for CMAS International Diver Training Certificates
1.3.1 CMAS International produces a double sided plastic Certification Card, referred to as a “C-card” for every Diver Training Programme included in this CMAS InternationalDiver Training Standards and Procedures Manual that serves as proof that the card holder has been assessed by a CMAS Instructor and that he has achieved the desired level of competence as coupled to the specific level of certification as prescribed by the relevant CMAS Standard.
1.3.2 The front side of the C-card is reserved for use by CMAS International and contains the following information:
220.127.116.11 A three dimensional CMAS hologram; and
18.104.22.168 The CMAS title of the level of certification.
1.3.3 The reverse side of the C-card is for use by the CMAS Federation or the CDC and shall include the following:
22.214.171.124 The logo and/or the name of the Federation which shall be printed on the upper quarter of the Ccard;
126.96.36.199 The Surname and Names of the card holder;
188.8.131.52 The name of the country where the C-card was issued;
184.108.40.206 The number of the C-card; and
220.127.116.11 If applicable, the expiry-date of the C-card.
1.3.4 The CMAS International also produces wetsuit certification badges and wall certificates that are available upon request from the CMAS International Head Office.
1.4.1 Any CMAS Federation or CDC that wishes to obtain CMAS International recognition for their certifications shall comply to the following:
18.104.22.168 The Federation or the CDC must be affiliated to the CMAS Technical Committee;
22.214.171.124 The Federation or the CDC must submit their Diver Training Standards as may be prescribed by the CMAS International Technical Committee for the CMAS Diver Training Programmes for which they seek CMAS International equivalence to the CMAS International Technical
Committee for evaluation, or alternatively, they may undertake in writing to conform to the CMAS
International Diver Training Standards as prescribed by this CMAS International Diver Training Standards and Procedures Manual;
126.96.36.199 The CMAS Federation or the CDC will submit any other information or documentation as may be required by the CMAS International Technical Committee, to complete the evaluation, to the CMAS International Technical Committee upon request by the last mentioned;
188.8.131.52 The CMAS Federation or the CDC will make all such amendments to its Diver Training Standards as requested by the CMAS International Technical Committee ; and
184.108.40.206 The CMAS Federation or the CDC will, if so desired by the CMAS International Technical Committee, allow a member of the CMAS International Technical Committee or a suitably qualified person appointed by them, to observe the presentation of the diver training programmes for which the CMAS Federation or the CDC seeks CMAS International equivalence from CMAS international.
1.4.2 Once the CMAS International Technical Committee has evaluated the CMAS Federation’s or the CDC’s Diver Training Standard for which it has applied for equivalence, the CMAS International Technical Committee will make a recommendation to the CMAS International Board of Directors as to the granting of equivalence or not to the CMAS Diver Training Standard of the CMAS Federation or the CDC.
1.4.3 The Secretary General will inform the CMAS Federation or the CDC in writing of the decision of the CMAS International Board of Directors.
1.4.4 Once equivalence has been awarded to a CMAS Federation or the CDC for a specific CMAS Diver Training Programme:
220.127.116.11 The CMAS Federation or the CDC is required to make all such amendments to its Diver Training Standard as may be prescribed by the CMAS International Technical Committee; and
18.104.22.168 The CMAS Federation or the CDC is compelled to issue the prescribed CMAS International Ccard for the CMAS Diver Training Programmes for equivalence which was granted.
1.5.1 All CMAS C-cards have to be ordered from the CMAS International Head Office. The C-cards can be ordered by any affiliated CMAS Federation or CDC.
1.5.2 It is the responsibility of the CMAS Federation or the CDC to print allthe personal information of the card holderon the C-card.
1.5.3 All CMAS Federations and CDC’s are obliged to annually send a list containing the following information of all the C-cards issued during the year to the CMAS International Head Office:
22.214.171.124 Surname of card holder
126.96.36.199 Full names of card holder
188.8.131.52 Nationality of card holder
184.108.40.206 Postal address of card holder
220.127.116.11 CMAS number for the C-card
1.6.1 The following numbering system shall be used on all CMAS C-cards:
1.6.2 The meaning of the numbering system is as follows:
18.104.22.168 “ XXX” shall be used to indicate the Olympic acronym of the country of the CMAS Federation or the CDC where the C-card was issued;
22.214.171.124 “Y” shall be used to indicate whether the card was issued by a CMAS Federation or by a CDC. If the card was issued by a CMAS Federation the “Y” shall be replaced by a “F” and if the C-card was issued by a CDC the “Y” shall be replaced by an “O”;
126.96.36.199 “00” shall be used to indicate the unique code given to the CMAS Federation or the CDC by CMAS International;
188.8.131.52 “ZZ” shall be used to indicate the level of the certification (i.e. P1, P2, P3 etc.);
184.108.40.206 “99” shall be used to indicate the last two digits of the year in which the C-card was issued; and
220.127.116.11 “888888” shall be used to indicate the unique six digit sequential C-card number for the specific level of certification issued in the specific year (It is mandatory that the sequential number starts at 000001 on the 1st of January each and every year).
1.6.3 The following will serve as examples of the prescribed numbering system:
18.104.22.168 “ESP/F00/M3/02/000025” which means that it is the 25th C-card issued by the Spanish
Federation and that the card holder is a CMAS Three Star Instructor; and
22.214.171.124 “ITA/F00/03/P3/000169” which means that it is the 169th C-card issued by the Italian Federation and that the card holder is a CMAS Three Star Diver.
1.7 Term of validity of CMAS International Diving Certificates
1.7.1 The period of validity of a CMAS International C-card issued by a CMAS Federation or CDC shall be equal to that of the equal national certification issued by the CMAS Federation or the CDC unless specifically prescribed by a CMAS International Diver Training Standard, in which case the last mentioned term of validity shall be applicable.
1.7.2 The term of validity of all CMAS International Instructor C-cards is five (5) years from date of issue.
1.8.1 No CMAS Federation or CDC is allowed to produce its own C-cards for any CMAS Diver Training Programme offered and regulated by CMAS International. This means that all CMAS Federations and CDC’s are compelled to issue the prescribed CMAS International C-cards that exist for CMAS Diver Training Programmes.
1.8.2 Any Diver Training C-card of a CMAS Federation or CDC that is not printed on an official double sided CMAS International C-card shall not be recognised by any CMAS Federation or CDC as equivalent to a CMAS International double-sided C-card . This means that the level of certification held by such a card holder shall not be regarded as valid and shall not be recognised by any CMAS Federation or CDC for the purposes of proof of diver certification or for the advancement to a higher or more advanced level of CMAS diver training.
1.8.3 CMAS International views any C-card that any CMAS Federation or CDC produces for any CMAS Diver Training Programme offered and regulated by CMAS international as a counterfeit C-card and reserves the right to institute legal action against any such CMAS Federation or CDC that produces such C-cards.
2.1 In these Standards, unless the context indicates otherwise –
2.1.1 “Air” shall mean an appropriate mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, with no less than 20% oxygen, which can be used as a breathing gas for SCUBA diving.
2.1.2 “Altitude” shall mean elevation above sea level.
2.1.3 “Altitude diving” shall mean SCUBA diving where the surface is above sea level. The specific height above sea level that will be used to determine whether a dive is an altitude dive or not is determined by the Dive Tables used to plan the dive (e.g. the US Navy Dive Tables regards any dive in excess of 91 meters above sea level as an altitude dive and the Bühlmann Dive Tables regard any dive in excess of 700 meters above sea level as an altitude dive).
2.1.4 “Apnoea” shall mean competitive free diving or breath-hold diving in which competitors attempt to attain great depths, times or distances on a single breath without the assistance of SCUBA equipment.
2.1.5 “Appropriate forms for the acknowledging and assuming the risk of diving” shall mean, but not be limited to an Indemnity Form or a Waiver and Release Agreement that informs the participant of a
CMAS Diver Training Programme of the inherent risks of SCUBA diving and which the
participant is required to sign, thereby acknowledging and assuming those risks and which indemnifies the CMAS Instructor, his Assistants, the Diver Training Facility, the CMAS Federation and CMAS International and their owners/managers or office bearers from any claims which may arise from any person if an accident should befall the participant. No in-water instruction shall be provided to a participant without first having secured a release signed by the participant or by the parent(s) and/or legal guardian(s) of a minor. Each CMAS Federation is required to draft their own Indemnity Forms and/or Waiver and Release Agreements relevant to the specific CMAS Diver Training Programmes they present.
2.1.6 “Assessment of a diving casualty” shall mean the primary and secondary assessment of the diving casualty.
2.1.7 “Assisted ascent” shall include the controlled buoyant lifting technique from behind, the controlled buoyant lifting technique from the front and the tethered buoyant lifting technique.
2.1.8 “Breathing gas” shall mean a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen with no less than 20% oxygen that is normally referred to as “air”.
2.1.9 “Bottom gas/mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinder(s) intended to be used in the bottom time phase of a dive.
2.1.10 “Briefing” shall mean a short pre-dive discussion between a CMAS Instructor and the participants or between a CMAS Dive Leader and the qualified divers he is going to lead/supervise on a dive, including but not limited to the procedures to be followed during a dive (i.e. team assignments, entry, descent, ascent, surfacing, and exit procedures, time and depth limits during the dive, contingency and emergency procedures), site and/or environmental considerations, communication, pre-dive equipment preparation, skills to be practised/demonstrated/assessed (in the case of training) and post-dive procedures.
2.1.11 “Cave diving” shall mean a penetration into a naturally occurring rock environment with a restricted vertical ascent beyond the cavern zone.
2.1.12 “Cavern diving” shall mean diving in the area in an underwater cave that is illuminated in part by natural sunlight and from which an emergency swimming ascent is possible.
2.1.13 “CCR” shall mean Closed-Circuit Rebreather.
2.1.14 “CDC” shall mean a CMAS Diving Centre that is registered with the CMAS International Technical Committee and that is in good standing with CMAS International.
2.1.15 “Certification” shall mean a CMAS Certification Card ("C-Card") documenting that a participant has completed all requirements of a specific CMAS Diver Training Programme. This verification is issued by CMAS International, the National
Federationor the CDC upon receipt of an instructor's written confirmation of satisfactory completion of all training programme requirements by the participant, as documented in the participant's Personal Log Book/Training Record.
2.1.16 “CMAS Leadership Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation or CDC to teach one or more CMAS Leadership Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of CMAS Dive Leader and/or CMAS Instructor certification.
2.1.17 “CMAS Snorkel Diving Dive Leader” shall mean an individual who is currently certified as a CMAS Three Star Snorkel Diver and who is sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation or CDC to lead guided and organised open water dives and to
assist a CMAS Instructor during confined and open water training.
2.1.18 “CMASSnorkel Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation or CDC to teach one or more CMAS Snorkel Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of CMAS Snorkel Diver certification
2.1.19 “CMASSpeciality Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation or CDC to teach one or more CMAS Speciality Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of CMAS Speciality Diver certification.
2.1.20 “CMASSport Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation or CDC to teach one or more CMAS Sport Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of CMAS Snorkel Diver and CMAS Sport Diver certification.
2.1.21 “CMAS Sport Diving Dive Leader” shall mean an individual who is currently certified as a
CMAS Three Star Diver and who is sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation or CDC to lead guided and organised open water dives and to assist a CMAS Instructor during confined and open water training.
2.1.22 “CMASTechnical Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation or CDC to teach one or more CMAS Technical Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of CMAS Technical Diver certification.
2.1.23 “CMAS National Federation” shall mean a National Federation that is a member of the CMAS International Technical Committee and that is in good standing with CMAS International.
2.1.24 “Competencies” shall mean a cluster of related knowledge, skills and attitudes performed to a specific standard under specific conditions.
2.1.25 “Computer Generated Dive Tables” shall mean desktop decompression profiles generated by various computer software programmes. Each CMAS Federation is allowed to select the software they want to use for instruction and diving.
2.1.26 “Confined water” shall mean a swimming pool with a depth appropriate to the activity or any body of water that offers conditions similar to those of a swimming pool with regard to visibility, depth, water movement and access.
2.1.27 “Debriefing” shall mean a short post-dive discussion between a CMAS Instructor and the participants or between a CMAS Dive Leader and the qualified divers he supervised on a dive, including but not limited to, comments on the dive and further directions to enhance performance, for repetitive dives etc.
2.1.28 “Decompression gas/mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinders used during the ascent phase (decompression) phase of a dive.
2.1.29 “Decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that requires a mandatory in-water decompression stop.
2.1.30 “Disabled” shall mean a person with a physical impairment which limits his physical functioning.
2.1.31 “Dive management” shall mean all actions and measures necessary to ensure the safe conduct of diving activities, including:
- emergency procedures
- conduct and control
2.1.32 “Dive Table(s)” shall mean a numerical table(s) used by SCUBA divers to determine time limits of dives, according to depth, as well as possible decompression delays during ascent and requisite surface intervals between dives. Each CMAS Federation is allowed to select the Dive Tables they want to use for instruction and diving.
2.1.33 “DSMB” shall mean a delayed surface marker buoy (i.e.an inflatable buoy that can be deployed from depth to provide a warning to surface users and their cover boat that they are ascending or require assistance).
2.1.34 “Emergency-signalling device” shall mean a device suitable for the venue in which open water diving is performed which can be used to attract the attention of the surface party or a search party if the diver or dive group become separated from the dive boat or surface party such as a BC integrated emergency horn, signalling mirror, safety sausage etc. or during any other emergency.
2.1.35 “END” shall mean Equivalent Narcotic Depth.
2.1.36 “Enriched Air Nitrox” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, used in diving instead of air and having lower nitrogen content than air. It is also commonly referred to as “Nitrox”.
2.1.37 “Guided dive” shall mean an organised open water dive where certified divers are accompanied in and/or underwater by either a CMAS Dive Leader or a CMAS Instructor.
2.1.38 “Introductory SCUBA dive” shall mean an open water SCUBA dive made under the direct supervision of a CMAS Instructor to introduce the participant to sport diving.
2.1.39 “Instructional Assistant” shall mean a CMAS Dive Leader.
2.1.40 “Knowledge” shall mean the specific information required for the participant to develop the skills and attitudes for effective accomplishment of diving tasks/duties.
2.1.41 “Leadership diving” shall include but not be limited to any activity where a CMAS Instructor is required to instruct participants on a CMAS Diver Training Programme or where a certified assistant assists a CMAS Instructor on a CMAS Diver Training Programme or where a CMAS Instructor or a CMAS Dive Leader oversees and/or supervises certified divers on guided or organised dives.
2.1.42 “Minimum instructional sport diving system” shall mean the equipment required to be worn by the CMAS Instructor, his assistants and the students while performing the skills prescribed for both the confined and open water training of the CMAS Diver and Speciality Diver Training Programmes included in this Manual. This equipment includes, as a minimum, the following:
- exposure suit (if appropriate)
- quick release weighting system
- cylinder and valve
- cylinder-support system
- buoyancy control device with low-pressure inflator system - regulator
- alternate air source (could range from a simple octopus system to a duplicate breathing system with a separate breathing gas system)
- submersible pressure gauge
- timing device
- depth gauge
- cutting device (if not prohibited by legislation)
- emergency signalling device (acoustical, optical)
2.1.43 “Minimum instructional snorkel diving system” shall mean the equipment required to be worn by the CMAS Instructor, his assistants and the students while performing the skills prescribed for both the confined and open water training of the CMAS Snorkel Diver Training Programmes and shall include the following:
- personal flotation device (if appropriate, e.g. snorkelling vest)
- a quick release weight system (if appropriate)
- exposure suit (if appropriate)
2.1.44 “Nitrox” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, used in diving instead of air and having lower nitrogen content than air.
2.1.45 “No-decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that does not require a mandatory in-water decompression stop.
2.1.46 “NormoxicTrimix” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen, used for a deep and/or technical diving and having an oxygen content of at least 18 percent.
2.1.47 “Openwater” shall mean anybody of water significantly larger than a swimming pool offering conditions typical of a natural body of water encountered in the region.
2.1.48 “Open water training dives” shall mean supervised, open water snorkel/free diving or SCUBA training experiences to fulfil the certification requirements of a CMAS Diver Training Programme and shall, as a minimum consist of the following:
- a briefing
- preparation to dive
- pre-dive checks
- an appropriate method of entry into the water
- descent procedures (if applicable)
- in and/or underwater activity of at least the prescribed underwater duration in the prescribed depth range
- an appropriate method of exit from the water
- a debriefing
- post dive procedures including equipment care
- recording (logging) the dive in student's Personal Log Book.
2.1.49 “Organised dive” shall mean a service offered by a CMAS Instructor or a CMAS Dive Leader, where divers who are already at a qualification and experience level suitable for the diving activity, are taken to a dive site.
2.1.50 “Out-of-air emergency alternatives” shall meandependent or independentprocedures allowing a diver to ascend to the surface in the event of an out-of-air situation.
- Dependent procedures include: octopus breathing; buddy breathing; redundant air supply (provided by buddy)
- Independent procedures include: emergency ascent; redundant air supply.
2.1.51 “Overhead environment” shall mean any dive site that has a physical ceiling, such as the inside of a cave or a wreck, from which a quick and direct escape to the surface cannot be safely made.
2.1.52 “Participant” shall mean an individual that complies with the prerequisites for participation in any of the CMAS Diver Training Programmes and who has formally enrolled on such a diver training programme presented by a CMAS Instructor. Synonyms for the word “participant” are “student”, “candidate” or “learner”.
2.1.53 “Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation” shall mean a swimming and drown-proofing assessment by the CMAS Instructor in order to determine the participant’s suitability for participation in a specific CMAS Diver Training Programme, given the specific physical demands of a specific CMAS Diver Training Programme. Each CMAS Federation is required to draft their own physical conditioning and watermanship evaluation standards and procedures.
2.1.54 “Pre-dive check” shall mean a check, including but not limited to, gas availability and suitability for a dive and equipment operating condition. It is normally conducted by the diver himself and by the dive buddy just before entering the water or in the water just before the descent.
2.1.55 “Risk assessment” shall mean the identification of hazards and who may be harmed by them.
2.1.56 “SCUBA” shall mean any diving apparatus that is a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.
2.1.57 “Safety swimmer” shall mean a certified diver who holds at least a CMAS Rescue Diver certification who is equipped in snorkelling equipment and who can come to the assistance of a participant during any surface training dive/exercise.
2.1.58 “SCR” shall mean Semi-Closed Rebreather.
2.1.59 “Skill” shall mean an ability, learned and acquired through training, to perform actions that achieve a specific desired outcome.
2.1.60 “Snorkel diving” shall meanthe activity of swimming while typically using a mask, snorkel and fins, where participants remain at the surface or make occasional breath hold dives and where buoyancy devices may be used to provide surface support depending on the environmental conditions and the participants' abilities.
2.1.61 “Speciality diving” shall mean specialised sport diving activities that require additional training other than normal sport diver training or specialised sport diver training for individuals or groups with special needs in order to be conducted safely and/or in a competent manner and includes, but is not limited to, such activities such as night diving, wreck diving, limited visibility diving, cavern diving or children diving activities.
2.1.62 “Sport diving” shall mean diving to a depth no greater than 40 meters, using only compressed air or Nitrox (with no more than 40% oxygen) as a breathing gas, never requiring a mandatory decompression stop and having direct vertical access to the surface from which an emergency swimming ascent is possible during an emergency. A synonym for sport diving is “recreational diving”.
2.1.63 “Supervision” shall mean, as it relates to confined and open water training, the prescribed level of supervision required by either the CMAS Instructor or CMAS Dive Leader in order to ensure the safety of the diving activity. The level of supervision required is prescribed as either direct or indirect supervision, which is defined as follows: - Direct supervision” shall meanvisual observation and evaluation of participant skill performance and student diving activities by a CMAS Instructor or CMAS Dive
Leader. Direct supervision requires personal observation and evaluation of the performance of the skills required for certification. During underwater skill performance and evaluation, direct supervision requires the student to be accompanied underwater.
- “Indirect supervision” shall mean the overall control, general observation, evaluation, and direction of student skill performance and student diving activities. The Instructor must be personally present at the training site and be prepared to come to the aid of a participant.
2.1.64 “Medical History/Statement” shall mean the medical history form completed by either the participant or by a medical practitioner, as prescribed by the relevant CMAS Federation, in order to determine a participant’s/diver’s suitability for participation in the sport of underwater diving. Each CMAS Federation is required to draft its own standards and requirements with regard to the completion of a Medical History/Statement by the participant or by a certified diver. No in-water instruction shall be provided to a participant without first having secured a signed Medical History/Statement from the participant.
2.1.65 “Technical diving” shall mean diving, other than sport diving, speciality diving or commercial diving, that takes divers beyond the normal limits of sport diving. It is an activity that includes one or more of the following:
- diving beyond a depth of 40 meters;
- any dive that requires a mandatory decompression stop;
- any dive in an overhead environment with a restricted vertical ascent to the surface beyond the cavern zone
- any dive during which accelerated stage decompression and/or the use of multiple gas mixtures are used during a single dive
2.1.66 “Travel mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinders used to provide an advantageous or safer breathing gas mixture while descending or travelling to or in some cases from a deeper phase of a dive.
2.1.67 “Trimix” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen, used for a deep and/or technical diving and having a lower oxygen and nitrogen content than air.
2.1.68 “Wreck penetration” shall mean an excursion to the inside of a wreck, beyond where light from an exit point can be seen.
3.1 The CMAS Diver Training Philosophy is based on the following principles:
126.96.36.199 The CMAS recognises:
188.8.131.52 That, although the sport of underwater diving is safe, it is not a risk free activity.
184.108.40.206 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
220.127.116.11.1 To inform participants of all CMAS Diver Training Programmes of the inherent risks associated with underwater diving in order for them to take an informed decision as to their participation in a CMAS Diver Training Programme;
18.104.22.168.2 To structure all CMAS Diver Education and Training Programmes in such a manner that it will provide the participant with the necessary knowledge and skills to participate in the sport in a safe and competent manner;
22.214.171.124.3 To always put the safety of the participants first during any CMAS Diver Training Programme; and
126.96.36.199.4 To actively promote the conformance with recognised safe diving practices.
188.8.131.52 The CMAS recognises:
184.108.40.206.1 That prospective CMAS Diver Training Programme participants can very easy be mislead by unscrupulous Instructors with regard to the eventual outcome of a training programme, the limitations of the eventual certification, additional hidden costs for services rendered during the Diver Training Programme etc., which could leave the participant quite disillusioned upon completion of the training programme.
220.127.116.11 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
18.104.22.168.1 To ensure that the CMAS Instructor provides the prospective participant with all the information he requires about a CMAS Diver Training Programme in order for him to take an informed decision as to his participation in the Diver Training Programme.
22.214.171.124 The CMAS recognises:
126.96.36.199.1 That quality diver education and training is the key to both diving safety and the development of competent divers.
188.8.131.52 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
184.108.40.206.1 To develop Diver Training Standards that will promote quality diver education and training;
220.127.116.11.2 To develop diver training programmes that are not coupled to prescribed time periods of instruction but which are rather coupled to the required performance of the participant.
18.104.22.168.3 To train CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders to a professional standard;
22.214.171.124.4 To ensure that our CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders maintain the highest standard of care to promote safety and sound customer relations.
126.96.36.199.5 To ensure that theoretical instruction is provided under the direct supervision of a certified CMAS Instructor;
188.8.131.52.6 To ensure that confined and open water instruction is provided under the direct supervision of a certified CMAS Instructor.
184.108.40.206.7 To ensure that the assessment of a diver’s knowledge and skills is undertaken by a certified CMAS Instructor.
220.127.116.11.8 To ensure that CMAS Instructors are only assisted by certified CMAS Assistants or Dive Leaders that work under the supervision of a CMAS Instructor.
18.104.22.168 The CMAS recognises:
22.214.171.124.1 That learning is a life-long process that is never completed;
126.96.36.199.2 That there is no single Diver Training Programme that is intended to teach the participant everything there is to know about the sport of underwater diving; and
188.8.131.52.3 That all CMAS divers should continue their diver education and training in order to stay abreast of the latest developments in the sport of underwater diving and to ensure their personal growth and development.
184.108.40.206 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
220.127.116.11.1 To actively encourage CMAS divers to enhance their existing diving knowledge and skills by enrolling on more advanced CMAS Diver Training Programmes; and
18.104.22.168.2 Tostructure, where practical, the CMAS International Diver Training Certification System in
such a manner that each individual CMAS Diver Training Programme serves as a building block towards the achievement of a higher or a more advanced level of certification thereby ensuring the continuous development of the CMAS Diver’s knowledge and skills.
22.214.171.124 The CMAS recognises:
126.96.36.199.1 That the sport of underwater diving is continuously evolving with the introduction of new equipment, techniques and scientific knowledge; and
188.8.131.52.2 That CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders are a valuable source of information as to possible changes that need to be made to CMAS Diver Training Standards.
184.108.40.206 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
220.127.116.11.1 To stay abreast of the latest developments in the field of underwater diving;
18.104.22.168.2 To evaluate the proposals of CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders for the amendments to CMAS Diver Training Standards; and
22.214.171.124.3 To continuously review and update CMAS Diver Training Standards to ensure that they remain relevant to the latest developments in the field of underwater diving.
126.96.36.199 The CMAS recognises:
188.8.131.52.1 That CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders are professionals and that other divers look up to them for leadership and guidance.
184.108.40.206 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
220.127.116.11.1 To train all CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders to a professional level;
18.104.22.168.2 To ensure that CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders conduct themselves in a professional manner; and
22.214.171.124.3 To ensure that CMAS instructors always lead by example.
126.96.36.199 The CMAS recognises:
188.8.131.52.1 That a shared value system is something that engenders trust and binds an organisation together; and
184.108.40.206.2 That a shared value system is also something by which an organisation is known by its customers.
220.127.116.11 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
18.104.22.168.1 To ensure that our CMAS Instructors and Dive Leaders subscribe to the shared values of honesty, integrity, fairness and human dignity in all their business and diving interactions.
22.214.171.124 The CMAS recognises:
126.96.36.199.1 That there are other international and national organisations that strive towards the achievement of aims and objectives that are similar or identical to those of the CMAS and with whom co-operation will lead to the benefit of all parties concerned.
188.8.131.52 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
184.108.40.206.1 To work towards openness in the diving community, to share procedures, techniques and operational methods with other divers and organisations in order to share knowledge and experience in the interest of diving safety and the process of continuous improvement.
220.127.116.11 The CMAS recognises:
18.104.22.168.1 That, throughout the world conservation organisations exist to encourage and educate people who use the aquatic environmenton the importance of the conservation, protection and sustainable utilization of this environment; and
22.214.171.124.2 That, as CMAS Divers, we utilize the aquatic environment to practice our sport of underwater diving.
126.96.36.199 The CMAS therefore undertakes:
188.8.131.52.1 To educate all CMAS Divers as to their duty to protect, conserve and utilize the aquatic environment in a sustainable manner so as to ensure the enjoyment thereof by future generations;
184.108.40.206.2 To educate all CMAS divers as to the importance of complying with international, national or local legislation, guidelines or directives that have been enacted to protect and conserve the aquatic environment; and
220.127.116.11.3 To work together with conservation organisations to protect, conserve and utilize the aquatic environment in a sustainable manner.
4.1.1 The general requirements for the training of CMAS Divers as included in this Section are applicable to all CMAS Diver Training Programmes unless stated to the contrary in the specific CMAS Diver Training Standard.
4.1.2 This Section must therefore always be read together with a specific CMAS
Diver Training Standard in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the
specific requirements applicable to a specific CMAS Diver Training Standard.
4.2.1 The CMAS prescribes to the principle that the participant has the right to take an informed decision as to his participation in any CMAS Diver Training Programme. In order to comply with this principle, the CMAS Instructor shall, before or during the first class meeting, make the following information available to the participant in order for the participant to take an informed decision as to his participation in the training programme:
18.104.22.168 The aim and objectives of the specific CMAS Training Programme.
22.214.171.124 The competencies of the certified diver who has completed thespecific CMAS Diver Training Programme that the participant intends to attend.
126.96.36.199 The prerequisites for participation in the training programme.
4.2.2 The class requirements, which shall include the following:
188.8.131.52 The costs of participating in the training programme;
184.108.40.206 Medical suitability to dive as well as the importance of appropriate regular diving medical examinations;
220.127.116.11 Insurance options/requirements in accordance with national regulations (if applicable); and
18.104.22.168 Contractual agreement, including conditions bearing on the signature, delivery and termination of the contract.
4.2.3 The scope of the training programme, which includes the following:
22.214.171.124 Content; and
126.96.36.199 Limitations of the eventual qualification
4.2.4 The diving related legislation and/or legal requirements applicable to the participant in the country where the training programme is presented.
4.2.5 The specific equipment requirements of the participant during the training programme.
4.2.6 The local environmental considerations that will have an impact on the participant and/or the presentation of the diver training programme.
4.2.7 The means and methods of assessment of the participant’s knowledge and skills during the training programme.
4.2.8 The requirements for certification/successful completion of the training programme.
4.2.9 The specific training programme procedures and schedule.
4.2.10 The fact that records shall be kept of the participant’s personal data and that these records may be passed on to the CMAS Federation, the CDC and/or CMAS
International. The personal data that the CMAS instructor is supposed to obtain from the participant and keep in safe-keeping for a period of at least five (5) years shall include the following:
188.8.131.52 Name, address and date of birth
184.108.40.206 Medical certification
220.127.116.11 Any previous training/certification, experience
18.104.22.168 The progress of the student
22.214.171.124 Records of certification once the training has been completed
4.3.1 The following information about the CMAS shall be made available to the participant during the first class meeting:
126.96.36.199 The CMAS as an international body for the management of underwater sport;
188.8.131.52 The relationship between the School/Club/Federation and the CMAS;
184.108.40.206 The CMAS International Diver Certification System; and
220.127.116.11 The position of the specific CMAS Diver Training Programme in the CMAS International Diver Certification System.
4.4.1 The participant shall be informed of the following during the last class meeting:
18.104.22.168 The diving opportunities open to him once he has completed the specific CMAS Diver Training
Programme and obtained the relevant CMAS Diver Training Certification; and
22.214.171.124 The different CMAS Diver Training Programmes that he can attend once he has completed the specific CMAS Diver Training Programme and obtained the relevant CMAS Diver Training Certification.
4.5.1 The CMAS Instructor shall ensure that theoretical training is conducted in an environment that is free from significant distractions to learning, such as a dedicated classroom. Furthermore, the training venue shall provide participants with sufficient working facilities and training aids (e.g. writing surfaces, reference materials, and computer, visual or audio materials) to ensure that participants are able to understand the information being presented.
4.5.2 Each participant shall be provided with relevant training material, in either printed or electronic format, that will assist him in mastering the required theoretical concepts and principles.
126.96.36.199 The CMAS Instructor shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before each confined and open water dive, and shall adopt procedures to ensure that all risks are controlled as far as is reasonably possible. The following factors shall be considered as part of this assessment taking into account the capability of participants:
188.8.131.52.1 water movement (e.g. current, wave action)
184.108.40.206.3 underwater visibility
220.127.116.11.5 entry/exit methods
18.104.22.168.6 restricted zones
22.214.171.124.7 suitability of the site for the planned activities
126.96.36.199.8 emergency action plan
188.8.131.52 The CMAS Instructor shall have the right to prevent any participant from taking part in the activity if following a risk assessment this is deemed to be in the best interest of the participant and/or of the other participants.
184.108.40.206.1 For all locations where confined or open water activities take place the CMAS Instructor shall ensure the availability of the following:
220.127.116.11.1.1 A first aid kit suitable for the planned diving activities;
18.104.22.168.1.2 An emergency oxygen unit with a capacity of delivering at least 15 litres/min of pure oxygen for at least 20 min; and
22.214.171.124.1.3 A communication system suitable for alerting the Emergency Medical Services.
126.96.36.199.1 The CMAS Instructor shall ensure that, at each dive site where confined or open water diving activities take place, a documented emergency plan comprising at least the following information is available:
188.8.131.52.1.1 Procedures for casualty recovery, resuscitation and evacuation;
184.108.40.206.1.2 Procedures for the use of the emergency oxygen supply; and
220.127.116.11.1.3 Information about the nearest medical resources (including data about the availability of the nearest hyperbaric recompression chamber).
18.104.22.168 The minimum equipment to be worn by a CMAS Instructor and a participant while conducting confined and open water SCUBA diving training for any CMAS Sport, Speciality or Sport and Speciality Leadership training programme shall consist of the prescribed diving equipment listed in Clause 2.1.42 of Chapter 1 whilst the minimum equipment to be worn by a CMAS Instructor and a participant while conducting confined and open water snorkel diving training shall consist of the prescribed diving equipment listed in Clause 2.1.43 of Chapter 1. When appropriate for open water diving, the use of a surface support-station with dive flag or a surface marker buoy is also encouraged.
22.214.171.124 In the event that the CMAS Instructor or the training facility by whom he is employed/on whose behalf he is presenting the training programme is providing or renting any diving equipment to the student the CMAS Instructor shall ensure:
126.96.36.199.1 That the diving equipment rented or provided to the student conforms to the relevant International Standards as prescribed by legislation applicable in the country where the training programme is being presented;
188.8.131.52.2 That the diving equipment rented to the student is subjected to an inspection prior to delivery in order to ascertain that it is fully operational;
184.108.40.206.3 That all diving equipment is maintained and serviced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, and records of maintenance, servicing and inspection is kept;
220.127.116.11.4 That the student is advised on choosing the proper diving equipment taking into account the envisaged diving activity and the qualification and needs of the student
(e.g. the proper fit of buoyancy control devices and suits); and
18.104.22.168.5 That the student should not use the equipment unsupervised as the use of the diving equipment requires specific training.
22.214.171.124 Prior to each confined and open water training session, participants shall have the safety provisions identified to them by the CMAS Instructor, including the following:
126.96.36.199.1 The identity and role of any assistants or other staff
188.8.131.52.2 Emergency procedures
184.108.40.206.3 Buddy/group assignments
220.127.116.11.4 The conduct required of the participants
18.104.22.168 The following additional information shall be provided to the participants before any open water training dive by the CMAS Instructor:
22.214.171.124.1 Information concerning the dive site, in particular hazards which could affect the safety of the dive (e.g. under-water obstructions);
126.96.36.199.2 Arrangements concerning buddy teams and/or group size; and
188.8.131.52.3 Depth and/or time limitations.
4.7.1 The maximum number of students for practical sport, speciality and sport and specialityleadership diver training is eight (8) students per CMAS Instructor. Two (2) additional students per certified CMAS Dive Leader may be added up to a maximum of twelve (12) students per CMAS Instructor. Although additional CMAS Dive Leaders may be used, no additional students may be added to the responsibility of the individual
CMAS Instructor. These ratios are considered maximum and can be reduced by CMAS Federations and CDC’s to suit the environmental conditions or other factors in their respective countries.
4.7.2 The maximum number of students for technical diver and technical leadership
training is four (4) students per CMAS Instructor. Two (2) additional students per certified CMAS Dive Leader may be added up to a maximum of six (6) students per CMAS Instructor. Although additional CMAS Dive Leaders may be used, no additional students may be added to the responsibility of the individual CMAS Instructor. These ratios are considered maximum and can be reduced by CMAS Federations and CDC’s to suit the environmental conditions or other factors in their respective countries.
4.8.1 Prior to the first confined water training lesson the student shall undergo a “Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation” as prescribed by the Federation or CDC.
4.8.2 Participants shall receive their initial training of each snorkel diving and SCUBA diving skill under the direct supervision of the CMAS Instructor.
Further skill development may continue under direct supervision of a certified CMAS Dive Leader and indirect supervision of the Instructor. The CMAS instructor shall conduct the final assessment to determine the satisfactory skill performance ofeach student.
4.8.3 The participant shall be taught the skills prescribed by the specific CMAS Diver Training Standard.
4.9.1 Before participating in the open water training dives the participant shall have demonstrated sufficient theoretical knowledge and snorkelling and/or SCUBA skills in confined water to be able to perform the open water dives in the prevailing conditions.
4.9.2 An open water training dive shall comprise of the activities as provided for in the definitions in Clause 2.1.48 of Chapter 1 and shall be directly supervised by a CMAS Instructor.
4.9.3 Participants to be certified shall complete the prescribed number of open water training dives under the direct supervision of a CMAS Instructor at the depths and for the
duration as prescribed by the specific CMAS Diver Training Standard.
4.9.4 All under-water skills in open water shall be taught, directly supervised and evaluated by a CMAS Instructor, who shall be in the water during each open water training dive. The CMAS Instructor shall be in direct control of the students throughout all open water training dives.
4.9.5 All open water training dives shall be conducted during normal daylight hours unless otherwise specified by the specific CMAS Diver Training Standard.
4.9.6 No open water training dive shall be conducted in any overhead environment where direct vertical access to the surface is not possible unless otherwise specified by the specific CMAS Diver Training Standard. Open water training dives shall therefore generally not be conducted in under-water caves, inside wrecks or below ice. (Aquatic plants are not considered an overhead obstruction).
4.9.7 No more than three (3) open water training dives may be conducted on a given day.
4.9.8 The safe supervision of participants is the sole responsibility of the CMAS Instructor. The CMAS Instructor shall lower the instructor/ participant ratio as provided for in Clause 4.7 of Chapter 1 or as prescribed by his CMAS Federation or CDCwhere environmental conditions are less than ideal, for example where underwater visibility is poor or where there is significant water movement. The CMAS Instructor may also use additional aids to improve safety such as ascent lines, surface support stations or Instructional Assistants. Where Instructional Assistants are used they shall comply with the requirements as prescribed by each CMAS Diver Training Standard.
4.9.9 The CMASInstructor shall limit the number of participants on open water training dives so that either the CMAS Instructor or a CMAS Dive Leader is able to establish physical contact with every participant at any time during the open water dive.
4.9.10 The CMAS Instructor shall cancel or abort the open water training dive if environmental conditions, equipment problems or a participant’s physical or mental condition make this necessary.
4.10.1 The CMAS Instructor shall have the right to withhold the participant’s certification, if in
the opinion of the CMAS Instructor, the participant has not performed satisfactorily in any one or more of the prescribed requirements for certification as described in the relevant CMAS Diver Training Standard.
4.10.2 Quality Assurance for CMAS Sport Diver Training Programmes
4.10.3 Both CMAS International and a CMAS Federation shall have the right to institute any such quality assurance measures that they deem appropriate in order to ensure that all CMAS Diver Training is conducted throughout the world in accordance to the minimum requirements of this Standard.
5.1 The CMAS Compulsory Hand signals are as follows:
5.2 The CMAS Additional Hand Signals are as follows:
6.1 The CMAS International DSMB Colour Code System is as follows:
Colour of DSMB
Indicates the position of a diver that is ascending normally.
Indicates a diver in distress that requires assistance. The DSMB may be accompanied by anattached note (i.e. underwater slate) indicating the required assistance(e.g. “More air”).
Yellow and Red
The red DSMB is usually sent up first to indicate the position of a diver and that he is ascending normally. The second DSMB, Yellow, is deployed to indicate that the diver now needs assistance. Again the DSMB may be accompanied by anattached note (i.e. underwater slate) indicating the required assistance(e.g. “More air”).
6.2 It is important that only DSMB’s with the standard colour code system is used. Divers should not use DSMB’s with mixed colours (i.e. red one side and yellow the other side) or any other colour than the recommended colours as it may prohibit certain divers from reacting in an emergency as they are not familiar with the colour code.
6.3 This standard does not apply to surface marker buoys (SMB’s) that are trailed on the surface by divers to mark their position.
7.1 The Ten Golden Rules of CMAS are as follows:
7.1.1 Never enter the water through reed, living corals or water plants;
7.1.2 Control your buoyancy;
7.1.3 Keep your distance from corals and other animals and do not stir up the sediment;
7.1.4 Take care where dropping anchor during boats dives;
7.1.5 Do not harass, touch or feed wild animals;
7.1.6 Do not spearfish (for fun), an do not buy or collect souvenirs such as corals and shells;
7.1.7 Be very careful when diving in caves. Bubbles and simple contact may destroy their delicate life;
7.1.8 Keep dive sites clean;
7.1.9 Learn about the underwater life and avoid any destruction; and
7.1.10 Urge your buddies to follow these rules.
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